…& the Southwestern Association for Indian Arts
Courtesy of SWAIA, the Southwestern Association for Indian Arts
Adapted from “History of the Santa Fe Indian Market” by Bruce Bernstein
Each August, the historic city of Santa Fe, NM welcomes the Santa Fe Indian Market, enveloping the town’s central Plaza and surrounding streets. In addition to the market, hundreds of gallery openings, art shows, and related events take place during the weekend of Indian Market and during the two weeks immediately preceding it. Indian art collectors and artists from around the world make the pilgrimage to Santa Fe – whether they intend to buy or not. The Southwestern Association for Indian Arts (SWAIA) sponsors the event, which is estimated to bring more than 100,000 people and over $100 million in revenues to the state and region.
Today’s SWAIA Santa Fe Indian Market is the outgrowth of a series of remarkable people and events. One story is about the Museum of New Mexico and a group of remarkable women who formed themselves into a political action organization to establish and protect human rights for New Mexico’s Indian population. In 1919, Museum Director Edgar Lee Hewett had revived the Fiesta as an annual celebration to help promote tourism. In 1922, the Indian Fair was created by the Museum of New Mexico as a part of the celebration. The Museum continued to sponsor the Indian Fair until 1926. It was also in 1922 that the New Mexico Association on Indian Affairs (NMAIA) was founded to help fight the U.S. Senate’s proposed Bursum Bill, which would have illegally given an enormous amount of Pueblo land to Spanish and American squatters. In 1936 the New Mexico Association on Indian Affairs took over the event.
By the time of the first Indian Fair, museum curator and assistant director Kenneth Chapman had worked extensively with many potters (in particular, Maria Martinez and her family from San Ildefonso) to understand their work. It was thought that a Fair would provide the opportunity to simultaneously educate both potter and buyer to appreciate Indian art as it had been before its transformation by non-Native cultures into curios and as souvenirs.
Edgar Hewett opened the first Southwest Indian Fair and Industrial Arts and Crafts Exhibition on September 4, 1922, with the simple words, “The hour has arrived.” He went on to speak about the “importance of fostering and preserving the crafts of the Indian.” Francis LaFleshe, eminent ethnologist and Omaha Indian, addressed the need for systematic production, steady markets, and the maintenance of adequate prices if the movement to revive Indian crafts was to be a success. Tsianina, Cherokee songstress, sang several songs of her people.
The Indian Fair was held indoors at the National Guard Armory behind the Palace of the Governors building. An admission fee was charged, except to Indian people. The patio of the Palace of the Governors was used for the following demonstrations: Navajo weaving, sandpainting, and silver jewelry, pottery, beadwork, and cooking on a kitchen range, and Indian dances.
Inside the Armory building, the walls were covered with watercolor paintings on paper and Navajo rugs. The Fort Beck Sioux Reservation had sent a collection of older beaded garments which earned the award for best tribal display, winning $15 and the Albert Bacon Fall Trophy Cup. Traders, Indian agency superintendents, and teachers were encouraged to send entries to the Fair. Local potters brought their own entries to Santa Fe. All entries were juried and judged by Chapman and two other Museum curators. Each pueblo comprised a single category, being awarded a first prize of $5 and a second prize of $3.
From 1932-1935, there were no fairs. Instead, judging competitions were held in the villages on saint day celebrations; at the Indian schools in Santa Fe and Albuquerque, various Pueblo day schools; and at trader and Agency-organized tribal fairs at Zuni, Shiprock, and Gallup’s Inter-Tribal Ceremonial. Committee members, Chapman, Amelia White, Margaret McKittrick, and others traveled from village to village and fair to fair hoping to discourage the production of “curios” through their sponsorship and awarding of cash prizes.
The Indian Market
In 1934 the NMAIA formally absorbed the Indian Fair committee as part of its Arts and Crafts Committee. To reach a broader audience, the NMAIA proposed educating the
public about Indian pottery and other crafts through a series of articles in New Mexico Magazine, as well as returning the Fair to Santa Fe.
In 1936, Maria Chabot, NMAIA President Margretta Dietrich’s assistant, proposed an Indian Market be held under the Palace of the Governor’s portal and modeled on Mexican village outdoor markets. The Saturday markets were held for a period of eight consecutive weeks beginning in July. Artists were expected to sell their own work, and small stickers were attached to those pieces which the judges believed represented “good” Indian art. Chabot’s invitation to Maria Martinez, Tonita Pena (a Cochiti painter), and Severa Tafoya (a Santa Clara potter) to serve as judges was refused, telling Chabot “they could not judge each other.” The NMAIA provided bus transportation to and from Santa Fe for the Pueblo villages being featured.
The Fiesta Indian Markets continued to be plagued by the same problems as the previous Fairs and Markets. Plaza merchants resented the artists “cluttering up the front of their stores.” Chaos reigned under the portal for the artists as well. There were no space assignments; during the 1940s people began sleeping under the portal to retain their spots. Pueblo dance performances became the NMAIA’s and Pueblo peoples’ primary involvement in Santa Fe Fiesta Indian Market. Throughout the 1940s Chapman remained the head judge. First prize paid $3 while second paid $1.50; in 1949 prize money was returned to the 1920s levels of $5 for first, and $10 for best piece. In 1949 prizes were now given for the best articles in each class in the whole market, not to each pueblo as was done formerly. This put potters in competition with potters from the other villages, thus furthering a potter’s reliance on individual style over that of his or her community.
Through the 1950s prize money and winners would decrease from $148 and thirty-two in 1950 to $124 and twenty-four in 1953. The Fiesta Indian Market was shrinking in size; it had become an increasingly lower priority of the NMAIA in the years following World War II.
NMAIA member Gladys Augur kept the markets going for seventeen years until her resignation in 1959. Augur was not a collector, but rather politically active through the NMAIA, which viewed the Market in educational and economic terms as a means of developing and sustaining economic opportunities for Indian communities.
In 1959 discussions began concerning the future of the organization. Fortuitously, trader Al Packard took an interest in continuing the markets along with Sallie and Bill Lippincott, Rex Arrowsmith, Marge Lambert, and Bertha Dutton. If not for Packard, the stagnant Markets would have withered from lack of organization.
The New Mexico Association on Indian Affairs changed its name to the Southwestern Association on Indian Affairs in 1959. It was thought that this new name would more accurately indicate the territory covered by the association. However, with this name change they also dissolved themselves, symbolic of a break with its political past as well as a generational change. Within five years the Indian Market was the singular activity of the group and cultural heritage preservation became the principal objective of Indian Market.
The growth of Santa Fe Indian Market has been phenomenal. In 1970, the Market was under the portal and along the north and east sides of the Plaza. All 200 artists who showed up on Saturday morning were given a booth. In 2002 there are 625 booths and 1200 artists. In 1970 there was $1835 in prize money and in 2002 over $65,500. The total income of the organization rose from $2,554 in 1970 to over one million dollars in 1996. In 1993, SWAIA’s Board of Directors voted to change the name of the organization to Southwestern Association for Indian Arts to more accurately reflect the focus of the Association’s work.
Now, 97 years after the first Indian Fair, the Southwestern Association for Indian Arts’ proud mission is “Bringing Native arts to the world by inspiring artistic excellence, fostering education, and creating meaningful partnerships.”
As SWAIA moves through the 21st Century with a world gaining deeper appreciation for American Indian arts and culture, it is poised for expanding its role through the creation of Markets worldwide, and through further developing its educational and training programs in support of Native American artists.